All sources used for a project are found on the MLA format Works Cited page, which is generally the last item in a project. MLA citing format often includes the following pieces of information, in this order:. Author's Last name, First name. For more information about each individual element and for proper formatting rules, see the sections below on author names, titles, containers, names of other contributors, source versions, numbers, publishers, publication dates, and locations.
Find more in-depth rules regarding the works cited in MLA format page down below, along with a sample page. The author's name is generally the first item in a citation unless the source does not have an author. The author's name is followed by a period. If the source has one author , place the last name first, add a comma, and then the first name. If your source has two authors , place them in the same order they're shown on the source.
The first author is in reverse order, add a comma and the word "and", then place the second author in standard form. Follow their names with a period. For three or more authors , only include the first listed author's name. Place the first author's name in reverse order Last name, First name place a comma afterwards, and then add the Latin phrase "et al.
For social media posts, it's acceptable to use a screen name or username in place of the author's name. Start the citation with the user's handle. No author listed? If there isn't an author, start the citation with the title and skip the author section completely. Citations do not need to always start with the name of the author. When your research focuses on a specific individual that is someone other than the author, it is appropriate for readers to see that individual's name at the beginning of the citation. Directors, actors, translators, editors, and illustrators are common individuals to have at the beginning.
Again, only include their name in place of the author if your research focuses on that specific individual. To include someone other than the author at the beginning of the citation, place their name in reverse order, add a comma afterwards, and then the role of that individual followed by a period.
Fimmel, Travis, performer. Created by Michael Hirst, History Channel, Gage, John T. SIU Press, If you're citing a source in its entirety, such as a full book, a movie, or a music album, then place the title in italics. If you're citing a source, such as a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an article in a journal or website, then place the title of the piece in quotations and add a period afterwards.
Follow it with the title of the full source, in italics, and then add a comma. This second portion is called the container. Containers hold the sources. Wondering what to do with subtitles? Place a colon in between the title and subtitle. Both parts are written in title capitalization form. Nasar, Sylvia. Simon and Schuster, If the source does not have a title , give a brief description and do not use quotation marks or italics.
For email messages, the subject of the email is the title. Place this information in quotation marks.
It is possible for a source to sit in a second, or larger container. A journal article sits in its first container, which is the journal itself, but it can also sit in a larger container, such as a database. A song can sit in its first container, which is the album it's found on. Then it can sit in its next container, which could be Spotify or iTunes.
It is important to include the second container because the content on one container can be different than content from another container. Title of Second Container , Other contributors, version, number, Publisher, publication date, location. In most cases, for the second container, only the title of the second container and the location is needed. In order for readers to locate the source themselves, they'll most likely use the majority of the information found in the first part of the citation.
Sallis, James, et al. ProQuest , ezproxy. Baker, Martha. Google Books , books. In MLA citing, when there are other individuals besides the author who play a significant role in your research, include them in this section of the citation. Other contributors can also be added to help individuals locate the source themselves. You can add as many other contributors as you like. Start this part of the citation with the individual's role, followed by the word "by".
Notice that if other contributors are added after a period, capitalize the first letter in the individual's role. If it follows a comma, the role should start with a lowercase letter. Gaitskill, Mary. Gospodinov, Georgi. The Physics of Sorrow. Translated by Angela Rodel, Open Letter, Sources can come in different versions. There are numerous bible versions, books can come in versions such as numbered editions , and even movies and songs can have special versions.
When a source indicates that it is different than other versions, include this information in the citation. This will help readers locate the exact source that you used for your project. Any numbers related to a source that isn't the publication date, page range, or version number should be placed in the numbers position of the citation. This includes volume and issue numbers for journal articles, volume or series numbers for books, comic book numbers, and television episode numbers, to name a few.
When including volume and issue numbers, use the abbreviation vol. Zhai, Xiaojuan, and Jingjing Wang. ProQuest Research Library , ezproxy.
Lewis, season 1, episode 2, Warner Bros. The production of the source is done by the publisher. The publisher is placed in the citation before the date of publication. Include the publisher for any source type except for websites when the name of the publisher is the same as the name of the website. It is also not necessary to include the name of publishers for newspapers, magazines, or journal articles, since the name of the publisher is generally insignificant. When sources have more than one publisher that share responsibility for the production of the source, place a slash between the names of the publishers.
When including the date that the source was published, display the amount of information that is found on the source, whether it's the full date, the month and year, or just the year. In terms of display, it does not matter if the date is written in a specific order. Make sure to use the same format for all citations.
When multiple dates are shown on the source, include the date that is most relevant to your work and research. The location refers to the place where the source can be found. This can be in the form of a URL, page number, disc number, or physical place. For page numbers, use the abbreviation p. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, add an in-text or parenthetical citation into the body of your work.
Direct quotes are word-for-word quotes that are pulled from a source and added into your project.
A paraphrase is taking a section of information from a source and placing it in your own words. Both direct quotes and paraphrases require in-text or parenthetical citation to follow it. You used information from websites, articles, books, and other sources for your paper, right? Hopefully, you did, because the best research and writing projects use information from sources to validate claims. The purpose of an in-text citation is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found the information in your writing.
When you place a line of text, word for word called a direct quote , or an idea called a paraphrase from another source into your writing, you, the writer, must display:. The major thing to keep in mind is that whichever information you include in the in-text or parenthetical citation, whether it's the author's name or the title, it needs to match the first word in the full citation.
This is an MLA parenthetical citation as the author's name is in parentheses.
Author's Last Name states, "Direct Quote" or paraphrase page number. This is an MLA in-text citation as the author's name is in the text of the sentence. Twain went on to say, "Jim never got back with a bucket of water under an hour - and even then somebody generally had to go after him 8.