Eight common fallacies are presented in Table Avoid false logic and make a strong case or argument for your proposition. Finally, here is a five-step motivational checklist to keep in mind as you bring it all together:. This simple organizational pattern can help you focus on the basic elements of a persuasive message when time is short and your performance is critical.
Speaking to persuade should not involve manipulation, coercion, false logic, or other unethical techniques. Here is a generic, sample speech in an outline form with notes and suggestions. Show a picture of a person on death row and ask the audience: does an innocent man deserve to die? Briefly introduce the man in an Illinois prison and explain that he was released only days before his impending death because DNA evidence not available when he was convicted , clearly established his innocence.
A statement of your topic and your specific stand on the topic:. Information: Provide a simple explanation of the death penalty in case there are people who do not know about it. Provide clear definitions of key terms. Deterrence: Provide arguments by generalization, sign, and authority. Retribution: Provide arguments by analogy, cause, and principle.
Though the term had a wide range of application as a memory technique or compositional exercise, for example it most often referred to the "seats of argument"—the list of categories of thought or modes of reasoning—that a speaker could use to generate arguments or proofs. Imagine these two spheres, which represent people, coming together. The following steps will help you and your students script roles from an existing story:. How might you expect your conversations to change if you have more opportunities to get better acquainted? Boethius ? As we saw in our discussion of Altman and Taylor, Altman, I. Copy to clipboard.
Case study: State of Illinois, Gov. George Ryan.
Reiterate your main points and provide synthesis; do not introduce new content. Imagine that you have been assigned to give a persuasive presentation lasting five to seven minutes. Follow the guidelines in Table A speech to persuade presents an attention statement, an introduction, the body of the speech with main points and supporting information, a conclusion, and a residual message. An elevator speech is to oral communication what a Twitter message limited to characters is to written communication.
Howell, L. Give your elevator speech a lift. Bothell, WA: Publishers Network. An elevator speech A presentation that persuades the listener in less than thirty seconds. It takes its name from the idea that in a short elevator ride of perhaps ten floors , carefully chosen words can make a difference. In addition to actual conversations taking place during elevator rides, other common examples include the following:. An elevator speech does not have to be a formal event, though it can be. An elevator speech is not a full sales pitch and should not get bloated with too much information.
The speech can be generic and nonspecific to the audience or listener, but the more you know about your audience, the better.
When you tailor your message to that audience, you zero in on your target and increase your effectiveness. Albertson, E. How to open doors with a brilliant elevator speech. New Providence, NJ: R. The emphasis is on brevity, but a good elevator speech will address several key questions:. Watch a YouTube video of a persuasive speech on becoming a hero. Watch a YouTube video of a persuasive speech on same-sex marriage.
Visit the Web site of talk show host Sean Hannity and assess his persuasive speaking techniques. Visit the Web site of National Public Radio and assess the persuasive message of various radio programs. This site from Western Washington University provides information about persuasive techniques and fallacies.
Previous Chapter. Table of Contents. Next Chapter. Chapter 14 Presentations to Persuade We are more easily persuaded, in general, by the reasons that we ourselves discovers than by those which are given to us by others. Zig Ziglar. Getting Started Introductory Exercises Please list three things that you recently purchased, preferably in the last twenty-four hours—the things can be items or services.
Decide which purchase on your list stands out as most important to you and consider why you made that purchase decision. See if you can list three reasons. Now pretend you are going to sell that same item or service to a friend—would the three reasons remain the same, or would you try additional points for them to consider? Compare your results with a classmate. Please think of one major purchase you made in the past year.
It should be significant to you, and not a daily or monthly purchase. Once you made the purchase decision and received the item e. Did you pay attention to details like color, modifications, or reports in the popular press about quality? Did you talk to your friends about it?
What kind of information did you pay attention to—information that reinforced your purchase decision, or information that detracted from your appreciation of your newly acquired possession? Discuss your responses with classmates. Learning Objectives Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of persuasion. Describe similarities and differences between persuasion and motivation.
Key Takeaway Persuasion is the act of presenting arguments for change, while motivation involves the force to bring about change. Exercises Select an online advertisement that you find particularly effective or ineffective. Why does it succeed, or fail, in persuading you to want to buy the advertised product? Discuss your ideas with your classmates. Think of a social issue, widely held belief, or political position where change has occurred in your lifetime, or where you would like to see change happen.
What kinds of persuasion and motivation were involved—or would need to happen—to produce measurable gain? Explain your thoughts to a classmate. Think of a time when someone tried to persuade you to do something you did not want to do. Did their persuasion succeed?
Start studying Communication: Persuasive Speech. Learn vocabulary, terms introduction. Persuasive speeches deal primarily with questions of value, fact and . Persuasive speeches deal primarily with questions of value, fact and The lecture suggests, in giving a persuasive speech, that we should keep in mind all of.
Why or why not? Discuss the event with a classmate. Principle of Reciprocity Reciprocity The mutual expectation for exchange of value or service. Principle of Authority Trust is central to the purchase decision.
Principle of Commitment and Consistency Oral communication can be slippery in memory. Principle of Consensus Testimonials, or first person reports on experience with a product or service, can be highly persuasive. Principle of Liking Safety is the twin of trust as a foundation element for effective communication. Key Takeaway A persuasive message can succeed through the principles of reciprocity, scarcity, authority, commitment and consistency, consensus, and liking. Exercises Think of a real-life example of the principle of scarcity being used in a persuasive message.
Were you the one trying to persuade someone, or were you the receiver of the scarcity message? Was the message effective? Discuss your thoughts with a classmate.
Do you think the principle of consensus often works—are people often persuaded to buy things because other people own that item, or are going to buy it? Are you susceptible to this kind of persuasion? Think of some examples and discuss them with classmates. Do people always use reason to make decisions? Support your opinion and discuss it with classmates. Make a list of five or six people you choose to associate with—friends, neighbors, and coworkers, for example.
Do you find that the principle of liking holds true in your choice of associates?
Discuss your findings with your classmates. Stimulate When you focus on stimulation as the goal or operational function of your speech, you want to reinforce existing beliefs, intensify them, and bring them to the forefront.