However, two male interviewees suggested that male chauvinism, in their perception, still existed. Two of them suggested that collectivism was still part and parcel of Japanese culture while two interviewees indicated that there had been a significant change from collectivism to individualism.
Moreover, two interviewees thought seniority was still part of Japanese work culture. In the contrary, five suggested that meritocracy was on the rise. Firstly, despite the fact that idealized influence attributed is one of the five transformational leadership styles which are expected to be the most effective as far as enhancing performance is concerned, only two interviewees approved its use.
Nine of them indicated negative attitude towards this style of leadership. Six interviewees were positive about the use of idealized influence behaviours style of leadership. The collective sense of mission and the keenness towards decision-making exhibited by such leaders was their core reason for liking the style.
Moreover, although it is one of the core transformational styles of leadership, the study had only five interviewees approving the use of inspirational motivation. All the 11 interviewees approved a leader who exhibits the intellectual stimulation style. This was due to their belief that such a leader has the potential of solving the day to day problems and proposing strategies of handling future issues. Individualised consideration, on the other hand, was supported by seven interviewees. The interviewees who approved of such a style considered its effectiveness especially as companies increasingly focused on individual performance and competences.
This follows the perceived growth of meritocracy in Japan. Those interviewees who were negative on this style of leadership suggested that group targets might not be achieved if the leader focuses on individual needs. Contingent reward, which is a transactional style of leadership, and supposed to be less effective compared to the five transformational styles of leadership in motivating the workers to optimum out put, was supported by 8 interviewees. They suggested that the use of rewards depending on performance to motivate employees was very effective in enhancing motivation.
For the case of management-by-exception active, one interviewee claimed that it was not dispensable while the rest did not endorse it, either. They argued that such leaders cause tension in the work place and hence less motivation of followers. Similarly, management-by exception passive was not approved by any of the interviewees and they expressed their unilateral dislike of the laissez-faire leadership approach.
Free Essay: The Full-Range Leadership Model (FRLM) describes several approaches to leadership behavior, ranging from passive or non-leadership. The Full-Range Leadership Model (FRLM) describes several approaches to leadership behavior, ranging from passive or non-leadership (laissez-faire) to.
The third part of the study evaluated the Japanese leadership styles. The opinions of the interviewees on the actual styles of leadership in Japan included directive leadership, participative leadership, social activities outside work, and overtime-work. Two interviewees explained that their leaders embraced directive style of leadership where they give specific orders to be strictly followed, whereas three interviewees mentioned participative leadership.
Two of them saw this type of leader as very accommodative and one claimed that the participative style can be problematic if the leader cannot make own decisions. Eight interviewees approved the need for social activities outside work. Seven explained that such activities provide the platform for followers to interact with their leaders and share openly.
Furthermore, six interviewees mentioned overtime-work. Most of them thought that there was still overtime-work in most Japanese companies and that the length of the overtime-work depends, to some degree, on the type of leader in charge. High significant positive correlations have also been found between the five components of the transformational style and the contingent reward component of the transactional style.
Whilst not considered strength, Avolio and Bass suggested that the high association between the components is caused by both components representing active and positive forms of leadership. While there are many leadership style questionnaires e. In addition, while many of the other leadership questionnaires originated in areas other than politics, the MLQ relates to the work of Burns , who discussed the idea of transformational leadership, following observations of political leaders.
This made the MLQ appropriate for studying the present political leader sample. Widespread usage has resulted in many tested translations of the questionnaire, including a Bulgarian translation. In general, standardised measures of any kind are rarely employed in countries such as Bulgaria, posing problems for cross-cultural researchers keen to validly explore the constructs these questionnaires measure.
The availability of a tested Bulgarian translation of the MLQ made it a suitable option from within the large array of available leadership behaviour tests. The test has also been warranted with good internal consistency making issues of exceedingly high transformational component correlations easier to discount.
The availability of a short form was also welcomed, given the difficulties associated with testing political leaders and the difficulty associated with introducing multiple measures. In order to explore the likely variations, political leader frequency scores on the MLQ scales i. The preferred test for these comparisons was MANCOVA allowing for the exploration of multiple dependent variables and therefore reducing the likelihood of type I error.
Unfortunately, the large presence of missing data see Table 1 , associated with this variable prevented us from including it in the analysis. In general the inclusion of unreliable variables in MANCOVA is discouraged, as degrees of freedom and therefore power is lost with each addition of a variable. Political ideology should nevertheless be considered in future work. While exploring assumptions for carrying out MANCOVA, some of the requested analyses showed sizeable correlations between scales belonging to each of the measured styles.
Log out of ReadCube. Within the circles many other leadership models can be accommodated, such as transformational leadership, when a leader considers how to deal with task, team or individual. This paper reviews the transactional-transformational leadership model in terms of its appropriateness for understanding and exploring outdoor leadership. However, researchers saw situations where individuals were led by visionary and charismatic leaders who helped their organizations achieve more than was believed possible Bass, ; House, ; and Bryman, Identify the sources and clearly articulate the reasoning behind the criticisms. Easy communication We agree that one of the essential things a good online service like ours must have is a simple way to reach the writer.
The finding posed problems similar to those experienced by others e. In order to solve the possible presence of redundant dependent variables, variable integration was undertaken. Exploring the factor loadings was therefore necessary before variable integration took place.
The emerged factor structure following the exploratory factor analysis is illustrated in Table 2. It can, therefore, be argued that contingent reward should be included in the combined transformational leadership frequency score variable, rather than in the combined transactional leadership variable, where it is thought to belong. Based on this, contingent reward was included in the transactional leadership frequency score variable. Outliers were absent and all three dependent variables appeared as normally distributed for each level of the IVs i.
Missing values associated with the dependent variables i. A Bonferroni correction to the alpha level was employed to prevent the type I error usually associated with multiple follow-up analyses. No significant differences were found with regard to the transformational style where Bulgarian and UK political leaders appeared to score similarly. In addition, the effect sizes can be considered too. The results of the analysis of culture differences in leadership styles partially supported the hypotheses. While the transactional style differences were predicted, the lack of transformational style differences was unexpected.
In order to explain the transactional leadership difference, one could explore the cultural value differences across the cultures studied. Bulgaria, for example, has been found to score highly in terms of power distance Minkov, , promoting authoritarianism, steep hierarchy, obedience towards those at the top, centralised power and reduced concern for employees in work settings.
Some of these aforementioned concepts—such as authoritarianism—are associated with task-oriented behaviours--also related to, and present in, transactional leaders. In this way, one can associate power distance with the elevated levels of transactional behaviours in Bulgaria found in this research.
It was expected that behaviours detrimental to the completion of a task are equally and universally absent in the leadership arena. No studies have looked at this in Bulgaria, but studies exploring countries with similar historical challenges—like Russia—have generated results similar to those obtained here. However, the scores were substantially higher for leaders from Russia, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, compared to leaders from Germany and the USA. It is therefore likely that a high score on one e. Moreover, after looking at denial and avoidance of threat-related information, Metselaar described governments with authoritarian experiences—such as governments in Bulgaria—as more likely to tolerate denial and avoidance, compared to stable democratic systems.
Interestingly, even though a difference in the enactment of transformational leadership behaviours in Bulgaria and the UK was expected, such a difference was absent. The findings oppose those who characterise cultures in more critical environments Conger, , cultures with collectivist values Jung et al. In general, charisma—a crucial aspect of transformational leadership—is often treated as an anti-democratic force and its heightened presence in cultures with history of totalitarian ruling was therefore expected.
Weber described charismatic appeal as highly interactive with bureaucratic administration, but also as a concept which had democratic ramifications. Moreover, Bass agreed that transformational leadership can be both autocratic and directive, and democratic and participative. As noted earlier, he also advocated for the universality of transformational behaviours.