In , the Statute of Kalisz guaranteed safety, personal liberties, freedom of religion , trade, and travel to Jews. Jewish worship was officially recognized, with a Chief Rabbi originally appointed by the monarch. Jewish property ownership was also protected for much of the period, and Jews entered into business partnerships with members of the nobility. Paulus Vladimiri c. In it he argued that pagan and Christian nations could coexist in peace and criticized the Teutonic Order for its wars of conquest of native non-Christian peoples in Prussia and Lithuania. Vladimiri strongly supported the idea of conciliarism and pioneered the notion of peaceful coexistence among nations—a forerunner of modern theories of human rights.
Throughout his political, diplomatic and university career, he expressed the view that a world guided by the principles of peace and mutual respect among nations was possible and that pagan nations had a right to peace and to possession of their own lands. Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus — , was a Dutch Renaissance humanist and Catholic whose works laid a foundation for religious toleration.
For example, in De libero arbitrio , opposing certain views of Martin Luther , Erasmus noted that religious disputants should be temperate in their language, "because in this way the truth, which is often lost amidst too much wrangling may be more surely perceived. He wrote, "It is better to cure a sick man than to kill him. Saint Thomas More — , Catholic Lord Chancellor of King Henry VIII and author, described a world of almost complete religious toleration in Utopia , in which the Utopians "can hold various religious beliefs without persecution from the authorities.
Thus, in his three years as Lord Chancellor, More actively approved of the persecution of those who sought to undermine the Catholic faith in England. At the Diet of Worms , Martin Luther refused to recant his beliefs citing freedom of conscience as his justification. Heresies could not be met with force, but with preaching the gospel revealed in the Bible. Luther: "Heretics should not be overcome with fire, but with written sermons.
Only if they undermine the public order, should they be executed.
He had overcome, at least for the Protestant territories and countries, the violent medieval criminal procedures of dealing with heretics. But Luther remained rooted in the Middle Ages insofar as he considered the Anabaptists ' refusal to take oaths, do military service, and the rejection of private property by some Anabaptist groups to be a political threat to the public order which would inevitably lead to anarchy and chaos.
The young Michael Servetus also defended tolerance since , in his letters to Johannes Oecolampadius , but during those years some Protestant theologians such as Bucer and Capito publicly expressed they thought he should be persecuted. Denying the Trinity doctrine was long considered to be the same as atheism in all churches. The Anabaptists made a considerable contribution to the development of tolerance in the early-modern era by incessantly demanding freedom of conscience and standing up for it with their patient suffering.
Sebastian Castellio — was a French Protestant theologian who in published under a pseudonym the pamphlet Whether heretics should be persecuted De haereticis, an sint persequendi criticizing John Calvin 's execution of Michael Servetus : "When Servetus fought with reasons and writings, he should have been repulsed by reasons and writings. Even though there will always be differences of opinion from time to time, we can at any rate come to general understandings, can love one another, and can enter the bonds of peace, pending the day when we shall attain unity of faith. Jean Bodin — was a French Catholic jurist and political philosopher.
His Latin work Colloquium heptaplomeres de rerum sublimium arcanis abditis "The Colloqium of the Seven" portrays a conversation about the nature of truth between seven cultivated men from diverse religious or philosophical backgrounds: a natural philosopher, a Calvinist, a Muslim, a Roman Catholic, a Lutheran, a Jew, and a skeptic. All agree to live in mutual respect and tolerance. Michel de Montaigne — , French Catholic essayist and statesman, moderated between the Catholic and Protestant sides in the Wars of Religion.
Montaigne's theory of skepticism led to the conclusion that we cannot precipitously decide the error of others' views. Montaigne wrote in his famous "Essais": "It is putting a very high value on one's conjectures, to have a man roasted alive because of them To kill people, there must be sharp and brilliant clarity. The Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth had a long tradition of religious freedom. The right to worship freely was a basic right given to all inhabitants of the Commonwealth throughout the 15th and early 16th centuries, however complete freedom of religion was officially recognized in the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth in in the Warsaw Confederation.
The Commonwealth kept religious-freedom laws during an era when religious persecution was an everyday occurrence in the rest of Europe.
The Warsaw Confederation was a private compact signed by representatives of all the major religions in Polish and Lithuanian society, in which they pledged each other mutual support and tolerance. The confederation was incorporated into the Henrican articles , which constituted a virtual Polish—Lithuanian constitution. The main concern was civil unity;  The Edict separated civil law from religious rights, treated non-Catholics as more than mere schismatics and heretics for the first time, and opened a path for secularism and tolerance.
In offering general freedom of conscience to individuals, the edict offered many specific concessions to the Protestants, such as amnesty and the reinstatement of their civil rights, including the right to work in any field or for the State, and to bring grievances directly to the king. The edict marked the end of the religious wars in France that tore apart the population during the second half of the 16th century.
Although strict enforcement of the revocation was relaxed during the reign of Louis XV , it was not until years later, in , when Louis XVI signed the Edict of Versailles —known as the Edict of Tolerance —that civil status and rights to form congregations by Protestants were restored. Beginning in the Enlightenment commencing in the s, politicians and commentators began formulating theories of religious toleration and basing legal codes on the concept. A distinction began to develop between civil tolerance , concerned with "the policy of the state towards religious dissent".
John Milton — , English Protestant poet and essayist, called in the Areopagitica for "the liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely according to conscience, above all liberties" applied, however, only to the conflicting Protestant denominations, and not to atheists, Jews, Muslims or even Catholics. Rather than force a man's conscience, government should recognize the persuasive force of the gospel.
In , Rudolph II decreed religious toleration in Bohemia. In , Roger Williams and companions at the foundation of Rhode Island entered into a compact binding themselves "to be obedient to the majority only in civil things". Williams spoke of "democracie or popular government. Also in , Congregationalist Thomas Hooker and a group of companions founded Connecticut. They combined the democratic form of government that had been developed by the Separatist Congregationalists in Plymouth Colony Pilgrim Fathers with unlimited freedom of conscience.
Like Martin Luther, Hooker argued that as faith in Jesus Christ was the free gift of the Holy Spirit it could not be forced on a person. In Maryland passed the Maryland Toleration Act , also known as the Act Concerning Religion, a law mandating religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians only excluding Nontrinitarian faiths.
Passed on September 21, by the assembly of the Maryland colony, it was the first law requiring religious tolerance in the British North American colonies.
Check out our essay example on Tolerance Is the Strength of Society to start writing!. Tolerance is the Strength of Society Tolerance is a sense of willingness to accept behavior and beliefs which are contrary to one's own.
The Calvert family sought enactment of the law to protect Catholic settlers and some of the other denominations that did not conform to the dominant Anglicanism of England and her colonies. Baruch Spinoza — was a Dutch Jewish philosopher.
He published the Theological-Political Treatise anonymously in , arguing according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy that "the freedom to philosophize can not only be granted without injury to piety and the peace of the Commonwealth, but that the peace of the Commonwealth and Piety are endangered by the suppression of this freedom", and defending, "as a political ideal, the tolerant, secular, and democratic polity". After interpreting certain Biblical texts , Spinoza opted for tolerance and freedom of thought in his conclusion that "every person is in duty bound to adapt these religious dogmas to his own understanding and to interpret them for himself in whatever way makes him feel that he can the more readily accept them with full confidence and conviction.
Locke's work appeared amidst a fear that Catholicism might be taking over England, and responds to the problem of religion and government by proposing religious toleration as the answer. Unlike Thomas Hobbes , who saw uniformity of religion as the key to a well-functioning civil society, Locke argued that more religious groups actually prevent civil unrest. In his opinion, civil unrest results from confrontations caused by any magistrate's attempt to prevent different religions from being practiced, rather than tolerating their proliferation.
However, Locke denies religious tolerance for Catholics, for political reasons, and also for atheists because "Promises, covenants, and oaths, which are the bonds of human society, can have no hold upon an atheist". A passage Locke later added to An Essay Concerning Human Understanding questioned whether atheism was necessarily inimical to political obedience.
Pierre Bayle — was a French Protestant scholar and philosopher who went into exile in Holland. In his " Dictionnaire Historique et Critique " and "Commentaire Philosophique" he advanced arguments for religious toleration though, like some others of his time, he was not anxious to extend the same protection to Catholics he would to differing Protestant sects. Among his arguments were that every church believes it is the right one so "a heretical church would be in a position to persecute the true church".
Bayle wrote that "the erroneous conscience procures for error the same rights and privileges that the orthodox conscience procures for truth.
Bayle was repelled by the use of scripture to justify coercion and violence: "One must transcribe almost the whole New Testament to collect all the Proofs it affords us of that Gentleness and Long-suffering, which constitute the distinguishing and essential Character of the Gospel. In a word, all the Mischief arises not from Toleration, but from the want of it. The Act of Toleration , adopted by the British Parliament in , allowed freedom of worship to Nonconformists who had pledged to the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy and rejected transubstantiation.
They were allowed their own places of worship and their own teachers, if they accepted certain oaths of allegiance. The Act did not apply to Catholics and non-trinitarians and continued the existing social and political disabilities for Dissenters, including their exclusion from political office and also from universities. In it he attacked religious views, but also said, "It does not require great art, or magnificently trained eloquence, to prove that Christians should tolerate each other. I, however, am going further: I say that we should regard all men as our brothers.
The Turk my brother?
Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Those are Canadian values. Please indicate where to send you the sample or. Why should they distinguish themselves thus from other citizens? The diverse workforce include there mains components which are racial and ethnic minorities in the United States; people emigrate from their own country to another country; and people who have physically or mentally disabled.
The Chinaman my brother? The Jew? The Siam? Yes, without doubt; are we not all children of the same father and creatures of the same God? Gotthold Ephraim Lessing — , German dramatist and philosopher, trusted in a "Christianity of Reason", in which human reason initiated by criticism and dissent would develop, even without help by divine revelation. His plays about Jewish characters and themes, such as "Die Juden" and " Nathan der Weise ", "have usually been considered impressive pleas for social and religious toleration".
Each son believes he has the one true ring passed down by their father, but judgment on which is correct is reserved to God. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen , adopted by the National Constituent Assembly during the French Revolution , states in Article "No-one shall be interfered with for his opinions, even religious ones, provided that their practice does not disturb public order as established by the law. Benjamin Franklin. The First Amendment to the United States Constitution , ratified along with the rest of the Bill of Rights on December 15, , included the following words:"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof The process of legislating religious toleration went forward, while philosophers continued to discuss the underlying rationale.
John Stuart Mill 's arguments in " On Liberty " in support of the freedom of speech were phrased to include a defense of religious toleration:. Let the opinions impugned be the belief of God and in a future state, or any of the commonly received doctrines of morality But I must be permitted to observe that it is not the feeling sure of a doctrine be it what it may which I call an assumption of infallibility.
It is the undertaking to decide that question for others , without allowing them to hear what can be said on the contrary side. And I denounce and reprobate this pretension not the less if it is put forth on the side of my most solemn convictions. In his essay " What is a Nation? Thus members of any religious group could participate fully in the life of the nation.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance . Even though not formally legally binding, the Declaration has been adopted in or influenced many national constitutions since It also serves as the foundation for a growing number of international treaties and national laws and international, regional, national and sub-national institutions protecting and promoting human rights including the freedom of religion.
Representatives of one hundred and twenty different religions came together for prayer to their God or gods.
In , in the spirit of Glasnost , Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev promised increased religious toleration. Other major world religions also have texts or practices supporting the idea of religious toleration.